Turkish Neurosurgery
The Effects of Proanthocyanidins on Vasospasm after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats
Cem Yılmaz1, Tufan Cansever1, Atilla Kırcelli1, Özlem Işıksaçan Özen2, Fatih Aydemir1, Aykan Akar3, Hakan Caner1
1Baskent university, neurosurgery, Ankara,
2Baskent university, pathology, Ankara,
3Gelisim Hospital, neurosurgery, İskenderun,
DOI: 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.14781-15.3

Aim:Delayed cerebral ischemia (DIND) and cerebral vasospasm (CV) remain the most common and debilitating neurological complications following aneurysmal subarachnoidal hemorrhage (SAH). Many reports demonstrate the importance of proanthocyanidines (PR) on the vascular system, including endothelium-dependent relaxation of blood vessels. These effects of PR to cerebral vascular system was examined in this study. Material and Methods:Fifty-two adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were used to experimental double hemorrhage model. They were divided to control, sham, pre- and post-interventional treatment groups. 100mg/kg PR was administrated for the treatment for respect to groups. Basilar artery diameter (BAD) and arterial wall thickness were measured and apoptosis ratio of the endothelial cells was calculated. Arterial walls were examined electron microscopically (EM). Results:There were significant differences between the groups except control and pre-SAH (p=0.37) and post-SAH and pre-SAH groups (p=0.15) respect to BAD. According to arterial wall thickness, apoptosis ratio and grading there were significant differences between the groups except control and pre-SAH (p=0.85, p=0.49 and p=0.18 respectively) and SAH and post SAH (p=0.08, p=0.21 and p=0.24 respectively) groups. EM findings revealed that pro-apoptotic and pro-necrotic degenerated endothelial cells with seldom vacuolization in post-SAH treatment group which were more serious in SAH group. Conclusion:We demonstrated that pre-SAH administration of PR induces better vasodilatation and protection of basillar artery (BA) from vasospasm (VS), which could yield neuroprotective and vasodilatator effects. In addition, PR appears to be involved in relieving oxidative damage, with antioxidant-antiapoptotic-antinecrotic effect that may contribute to vascular dilation.

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