We aimed to evaluate the effects of cerebroventricular administration of
hyperoncotic/hyperosmotic agents on edematous tissue in rats with experimental head trauma.
Material and Methods:
The study included 54 female Sprague-Dawley rats with weights ranging between 200-250 g. Six experimental groups were examined with each group containing 9 rats. All rats were exposed to head trauma, and treatment groups
were administered 2 microliters of one of the drugs (albumin, mannitol, hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl),glycerin and dextran) 6, 12 and 24 hours after the trauma
via the cerebroventricular route and using a stereotactic device. Rats were sacrificed
48 hours after the trauma, and brain tissues were extracted without damage. Biochemical analyses including reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1-β) were performed on the injured left hemisphere.
Compared with the control group, the albumin, mannitol, 3% NaCl and
glycerin treatment groups revealed dramatic increases in GSH levels (p<0.001). Levels
of MDA, which is the end-product of brain edema and lipid peroxidation, failed to show
a statistically significant decrease, but there was a decreasing trend observed in the
inter-group comparisons. NO levels were also decreased in the 3% NaCl treatment
group. An analysis of TNF-α and IL-1β, two proinflammatory cytokines associated with
the trauma, revealed that IL-1β decreased significantly in all treatment groups
(p=0.001), whereas no significant difference was detected in TNF-α levels.
Cerebroventricular administration of hyperoncotic/hyperosmotic agents provide substantial effects on the treatment of brain edema