Angiogenesis occurs after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a critical regulator of angiogenesis; however, its role in the central nervous system remains controversial. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2), a natural metabolite of estrogen, is known to inhibit HIF-1α. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 2ME2 in a rat model of ICH-induced angiogenesis.Material and Methods:
Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: Sham operated group; ICH; ICH+2ME2; and ICH+Vehicle groups. ICH model was induced by stereotactic injection of collagenase type VII into right globus pallidus. 2ME2 or vehicle (10 % dimethyl sulfoxide) was administered intraperitoneally 10 min after ICH. Angiogenesis and expression of HIF-1α was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively.Results:
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labeled nuclei were detected in cerebral endothelial cells (ECs) around the hematoma; the labeling peaked at 14 days post-ICH. HIF-1α - immunoreactive microvessels with dilated outline were detected in the perihematomal tissues; the vessels extended into the clot from the surrounding tissues from day 7 onwards. HIF-1α protein levels increased, while no change was observed in HIF-1α mRNA expression after ICH. 2ME2 decreased the PCNA-labeled nuclei in cerebral ECs and down-regulated the expression of HIF-1α protein as well, while it had little effect on the mRNA expression of HIF-1α. Conclusion:
These findings suggest that the HIF-1α inhibitor, 2ME2, inhibited post-ICH angiogenesis by suppressing HIF-1α expression, thus exerting detrimental effects in ICH.