Turkish Neurosurgery
Investigation of the possible protective effects of ketamine and dantrolene on the hippocampal apoptosis and spatial learning in rats exposed to electroconvulsive seizures as a model of status epilepticus
İbrahim Devrim Gursoy 1, Sureyya Barun1, Remzi Erdem2, Ulya Keskin2, murat Kızıltas1, Pergin Atilla3, Sevda Muftuoglu3, Deniz Yuce4, Fırat Narin5, Mert Ertunc6, Yildirim Sara6, Hande Canpinar7
1Gazi University Medical School, Department of Pharmacology, ANKARA,
2Baskent University Medical School, Department of Pharmacology, ANKARA,
3Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Histology and Embryology, ANKARA,
4Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Preventive Oncology, ANKARA,
5Hacettepe University, Institute of Neurological Sciences and Psychiatry, ANKARA,
6Hacettepe University Medical School , Department of Pharmacology, ANKARA,
7Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Basic Oncology, ANKARA,
DOI: 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.27023-19.3

Aim:Status epilepticus (SE) may lead to cognitive dysfunction and neuronal loss in hippocampus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effects of ketamine and dantrolene on the hippocampal apoptosis and spatial learning in rats exposed to repeated electroconvulsive seizures (ECS) as a model of SE.Material and Methods:Twenty-four rats were assigned to 4 groups. 1. Sham. 2. ECS: ECS were induced by ear electrodes via electrical stimulation. The same ECS protocol was applied to the 3. and 4. groups which received ketamine (40 mg/kg s.c.) or dantrolene (5 mg/kg i.p.) 1 h before each ECS, respectively. Following 30 days of recovery, the cognitive status of the animals was evaluated via Morris water maze (MWM). The same experimental protocol was repeated 14 days afterward to evaluate the retention of the memory. Hippocampal apoptosis has been examined in corresponding experimental groups. Results:All the animals in four groups learned the task with no significant difference between groups in MWM. The ECS+ketamine group showed memory impairment 14 days afterward. ECS+dantrolene group was not different from controls. ECS caused long term apoptotic processes in dentate gyrus and non-apoptotic neuronal injury in CA1 and CA2. Conclusion:Dantrolene and ketamine inhibited apoptosis and showed neuroprotective effects. Although ketamine and dantrolene inhibited ECS-induced apoptosis and non-apoptotic injury, they did not produce similar effects on memory retention. It will be warrented to evaluate cognitive dysfunction by taking into consideration the other factors in addition to apoptosis and neurodegenerative changes.

Corresponding author : Sureyya Barun