Turkish Neurosurgery
Variations in foramen transversarium of cervical spine: an osteological study in dried cervical vertebra of North Indian origin with its surgical importance
Apurba Patra1, Priti Chaudhary1, Harsimarjit Kaur2
1All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bathinda , Anatomy, Bathinda,
2Government Medical College, Anatomy, Patiala,
DOI: 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.32701-20.3

Aim:Foramina transversaria (FT) are located on the transverse process of cervical vertebrae. These foramina are known to exhibit variations with regard to shape, size and may even absent, incomplete or duplicated. The aim of this study was to investigate the variations in number, shape, size of foramina transversaria of the human cervical vertebrae and their clinical importanceMaterial and Methods:200 dry cervical vertebrae (C3-C7) of 40 spines were studied for the presence of variations in number, size and shape of the FT. The foramina were further classified according to their shape depending upon the direction of their main diameterResults:Accessory foramina was found in 40 cervical vertebrae. Bilateral accessory foramen was slightly more common than a unilateral one. Occurrence of accessory foramen followed a particular pattern. Incidence increased in descending order of cervical vertebrae and most commonly found in C7. On the right side, the mean of antero-posterior and transverse diameter was 4.96±1.08 mm and 5.68±1.20 mm respectively whereas on the left side it was 5.07±1.12 mm and 5.76±1.29 mm respectively. The difference was statistically non-significant. Five types of shape were noted. Type I was predominant on right side, type IV was predominant on the left side.Conclusion:variations in the number, shape and size of the foramen transversarium is not an uncommon phenomenon. Anatomical knowledge regarding such variations is clinically important since the course of the vertebral artery may be distorted in such situations and may result in vertebro-basilar insufficiency. Data provided in this study can be useful in interpretation of radiographic images (computerized tomography and angiograms).

Corresponding author : Apurba Patra