Turkish Neurosurgery 2024 , Vol 34 , Num 3
Institutional Experience of Post-Traumatic Posterior Fossa Extra Dural Hematoma: A Prospective Longitudinal Study
Piyush GEDEKAR1,Biplav SINGH1,Akshay RAJPUT1,Sandeep MOHINDRA1,Manjul TRIPATHI1
1Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India DOI : 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.44330-23.2 AIM: To analyze clinical and imaging characteristics of post-traumatic posterior fossa extradural hematoma (PFEDH).

MATERIAL and METHODS: Between 2018 and 2022, 51 patients were admitted to our tertiary care trauma center with a diagnosis of PFEDH. The management decision was tailored by an individual consultant based on clinicoradiological findings. We did a prospective analysis of patient characteristics, radiology, clinical presentation, management, and outcome at discharge and onemonth follow-up.

RESULTS: Of the 51 patients diagnosed with a PFEDH, 45 (88.2%) were male, and six (11.8%) were female with a mean age of 31.2 years (range 2-77 years). Twenty-six patients needed surgical evacuation of the EDH, while the rest 25 patients were managed conservatively. There was one crossover patient from the conservative to the surgical arm. Road traffic accidents (RTA) were the most common cause of injury (n=35; 68.6%), followed by falls from height (n=16; 31.4%). Most patients presented with vomiting and loss of consciousness (LOC). At presentation, 30 patients (58.5%) had a GCS 15. Seven patients (13.7%) presented with a GCS of 9-14, and 14 patients (27.5%) with GCS ? 8. The mean EDH volume in conservatively and surgically managed patients was 14.1 and 25.1cc, respectively. Five patients (9.8%) had significant midline shift with obliteration of basal cisterns, 15 patients (29.4%) had effacement of the fourth ventricle, and 11 patients (21.5%) had the presence of hydrocephalus. All patients with features suggestive of tight posterior fossa (hydrocephalus, obliterated basal cisterns, and fourth ventricle compression) needed surgical intervention. Of the 25 conservatively managed patients, 24 (96%) had favorable GOS scores at discharge, while one (4%) had an unfavorable score. 16/26 (61.5%) surgically treated patients had a good outcome at discharge (GOS=4-5), while ten patients (38.4%) had adverse outcomes (GOS <4). Initial EDH volume was inversely correlated with presenting GCS and GOS with a mean volume of 21.5 ± 8.5 cc in patients presenting with a GCS ?8. Patients with a GCS of 15 at presentation had a mean EDH volume of 16.1 ± 8.2 cc. Patients with smaller EDH had much higher GOS scores than patients with higher volume EDH (GOS 1 = 22.0 ± 9.83 cc vs. GOS 5 = 18.9 ± 12.2 cc). Outcomes mainly depended on factors like GCS at arrival and associated supratentorial, thoracic/ abdominal polytrauma.

CONCLUSION: In patients with a clot volume of <15 cm3 and GCS of 15 at presentation with no mass effect and absence of tight posterior fossa, a conservative trial under strict clinicoradiological monitoring in a neuro-critical multidisciplinary setting can be offered with good results. In cases of altered GCS, findings of a TPF, or clinicoradiological deterioration, immediate surgery is warranted. Keywords : Craniotomy, Decompressive craniectomy, Glasgow coma score, Guidelines, Neurosurgery, Traumatic brain injury

Corresponding author : Manjul TRIPATHI, drmanjultripathi@gmail.com