Turkish Neurosurgery
Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Motor and Cognitive Dysfunctions in Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury Model
Guven Akcay1, Fiiz Demirdogen2, Tuba Gul3, Yılmaz Ali4, Kotan Dundar Dilcan5, Karakoc Esra6, Ozturk Huseyin Emre5, Celik Cagla7, Celik Haydar8, Erdem Yavuz8
1Hitit University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biophysics, Çorum,
2Binali Yıldırım University, Mengücek Gazi Education and Research Hospital, , Department of Neurology, Erzincan,
3Ordu University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Ordu,
4Ordu University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Ordu,
5Sakarya University, Training and Research Hospital, Department of Neurology, Sakarya,
6Hitit University, Medicine Student, Çorum,
7Hitit University, Vocational School of Health Services, Pharmacy Services Program, Çorum,
8Ankara Research and Training Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Ankara,
DOI: 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.45526-23.4

Aim:To investigate the therapeutic and neuroprotective effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) application on the traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced glutamate and calcium excitotoxicity and loss of motor and cognitive functions.Material and Methods:Forty rats were equally divided in the sham, TBI, tDCS + TBI + tDCS, and TBI + tDCS groups. Mild TBI was induced by dropping a 450-g iron weight from a height of 1 m onto the skull of the rats. The tDCS + TBI + tDCS group was prophylactically administered 1 mA stimulation for 30 min for 7 days starting 5 days before inducing TBI. In the TBI + tDCS group, tDCS (1 mA for 30 min) was administered 2 h after TBI, on days 1 and 2. Cognitive and locomotor functions were assessed using the novel object recognition and open field tests. The calcium, glutamate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1) levels in the hippocampus were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results:Although the motor and cognitive functions were substantially reduced in the TBI group when compared with the sham, they improved in the treatment groups (p < 0.05). The calcium, glutamate, and NMDAR1 levels were considerably higher in the TBI group than in the sham (p < 0.001). However, they were considerably lower in the tDCS + TBI + tDCS and TBI + tDCS groups than in the TBI groups (p < 0.05). In particular, the change in the tDCS + TBI + tDCS group was higher than that in the TBI + tDCS group.Conclusion:Application of tDCS before the development of TBI improved motor and cognitive dysfunction. It demonstrated a neuroprotective and therapeutic effect by reducing the excitotoxicity via the regulation of calcium and glutamate levels.

Corresponding author : Guven Akcay