Turkish Neurosurgery 2011 , Vol 21 , Num 2
Antithrombin Iıı and Enoxaparin Treatment Inhibit Contusion-Triggered Cell Death, Inflammation, Hemorrhage and Apoptosis after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats
Orhan SEN1, Erkin SONMEZ2, Melih CEKINMEZ3, Ozlem OZEN4, Hakan CANER5
1BSK Metropark Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Adana, Turkey
2M.H. Batman State Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Batman, Turkey
3Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Adana Training and Research Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Adana, Turkey
4Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Ankara, Turkey
5Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Ankara, Turkey
DOI : 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.3646-10.1 AIM: In this study, we aimed to show the neuroprotective effects of AT III and Enoxaparin after severe traumatic brain injury.

MATERIAL and METHODS: The animals were divided into four groups as Group 1; control group, Group 2; trauma group, Group 3; AT III group and Group 4; Enoxaparin group. Severe trauma was performed by the weight dropping technique. These animals were killed 48 hours after injury. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. Specimens were graded for cell death, inflammation, hemorrhage and apoptosis.

RESULTS: The control group showed normal ultrastructure of brain tissue. Trauma produced obvious damage. 8 rats (80%) in the trauma group demonstrated minimal inflammation and grade 5 cell death. Trauma increased hemorrhage and apoptosis scores to statistically significant levels (p<0.001). Enoxaparin was found to reduce neuronal cell death but not as effectively as AT III. A statistically significant difference was observed between the AT III and Enoxaparin group according to inflammation grades. Significant antiapoptotic properties of AT III were observed while hemorrhage was more common in the Enoxaparin group.

CONCLUSION: Anticoagulants such as AT III and enoxaparin are promising drugs in the treatment of traumatic brain injuries. Keywords : Traumatic brain injury, Antithrombin III, Enoxaparin, Cell death, Hemorrhage, Apoptosis

Corresponding author : Erkin Sonmez, erkinso@gmail.com